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Lesson 2Languages used for Web development
ObjectiveIdentify the Functions of four main kinds of Languages used for Web development.

Languages used for Web Development

Languages can be seen as the building blocks for other software applications, for databases, and for bundled software solutions. A language provides the computer with instructions that result in specific kinds of operations.
There are five main kinds of languages used for Web development:
  1. Procedural
  2. Object-oriented
  3. SQL (Structured Query Language)
  4. Markup
  5. Scripting
The Slide Show below shows characteristics of each of these languages. The examples listed are all widely used in Internet applications (or in applications that are often integrated with Web applications).


Procedural DML Scripting
To further understand the types of languages, read more in depth descriptions below.

Procedural and object-oriented languages

Procedural languages require that many definitions be created at the beginning of the program for all variables that will be used later. For example, at the beginning the programmer will establish
"Let X = 5, Let Y = 10." 

Later, the programmer can simply write a line of code that says: Display X + Y. The result displayed would be 15. Procedural languages are well suited for operations such as logic, math, and animation. While they have high performance (speed and efficiency), they can be platform-specific.

Reusable objects

Object-oriented languages break a program down into discrete "objects," or segments, which have clearly defined functionality and inputs and outputs. Because of this breakdown, the objects can be broken out and named as separate modules. When such modules are designed to run independently of any particular program, and can be "plugged into" a variety of different programs with the same result, they are called objects.

Efficiency through recycling

Objects typically perform repeated tasks, such as printing, or saving a file to disk and are reused anywhere in the main program just by "calling" the object's name. This saves programming time and makes the program smaller. It also makes the next project's program easier to write because any object, like the Print or Save object, can be "recycled" or used again in the new program.

Application Program Interface

Application Program Interface, referred to as API, is a set of short programs, or protocols used by developers to speed development. Think of it as lots of pre-written tiny program modules that can be mixed and matched to build an application. Because APIs are so popular, most operating systems, such as MS-Windows, provide APIs to facilitate programming. One key advantage of any API is that they facilitate a common look and feel for similar features, like textboxes, or title bars, for the user.This familiarity makes it easier for users when learning a new application.

Data manipulation languages

Data manipulation languages are used to specify and construct the physical data components of a database and to perform queries and updates. SQL is a commonly-used standardized database language. SQL code can be executed on a database server.
In the next lesson, you will learn the characteristics of the fourth type of language: markup languages, which are the basis of a browser's ability to display text and graphics.

Procedural Oobject Oriented Languages

Click the Exercise link below to test your understanding of procedural and object-oriented languages.
Procedural Object Oriented Languages